Causes of prostate cancer?

There are many theories

Unfortunately, no one knows the exact causes of prostate cancer, or why some types are more aggressive than others. But we do know that it is the most common cancer in men.

The American Cancer Society estimates that one in six men will be diagnosed with the disease. It may reassure you to know that only one in 38 men will die from it.

It may all start with DNA

Whenever a cell divides, DNA is copied to the new cell. Sometimes this process doesn’t work perfectly.

It is believed that damage or mutations to DNA cause normal prostate cells to become cancerous cells. Some of these mutations are inherited and others occur during a man’s lifetime. The more quickly cells grow and divide, the more chances for mutations.

Up to 10% of prostate cancers are caused by inherited DNA changes. But it is more common for DNA changes to occur during a man's lifetime. Mutated genes that have been linked to a man's tendency to get prostate cancer include:

  • HPC1 (Hereditary Prostate Cancer Gene 1)
  • BRCA1
  • BRCA2

High levels of certain hormones (such as testosterone and an insulin-like growth factor-1 called IFG-1) have also been linked to prostate cancer cell growth, and may put men at risk.

Exposure to radiation or certain chemicals that have been known to cause cancer may also cause DNA mutations, but this does not appear to be a major cause of prostate cell mutations.

Other possible causes of prostate cancer

The American Cancer Society suggests that a diet low in fruits and vegetables, and high in fat, particularly saturated fat in hydrogenated foods, causes oxidative damage to DNA. They report a slightly higher risk of developing prostate cancer in men who eat a lot of red meat or high-fat dairy products.

A high intake of calcium has been linked to the development of prostate cancer, but some studies show that an average intake of calcium usually does not put men at risk.

More risk factors

  • Age
  • Family history
  • Race
  • Hormones
  • Ethnicity
  • Environment

What we know about age:  A man’s risk increases after the age of 50 (nearly 2 out of 3 prostate cancers are found in men older than 65).

African-American men are at higher risk than white men: They also tend to be diagnosed at a more advanced stage than white men. Asian-American men and Hispanic/Latino men are at lower risk than white men.

What we know about family history: If your loved one has a father or brother with prostate cancer, his risk of getting the disease is more than doubled. If a man has several family members who have had prostate cancer, his risk is also much higher.

More about dietary factors: Another reason researchers believe that diet may play a role is because the rate of prostate cancer is lower in Asian men living Asia, but higher in Asian men living in the United States. The American Cancer Society reports that prostate cancer is also more common in North America, northwestern Europe, Australia, and on Caribbean islands, although the reason is not known.

There is also no strong scientific proof that too much sexual activity—including masturbation—is one of the causes of prostate cancer.

More research is needed

Other conditions that still need more research to determine if they are truly causes of prostate cancer, include:

  • Inflammation of the prostate  (called prostatitis)
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Vasectomy 
  • Smoking
  • Being overweight

Next: Symptoms of prostate cancer

Disease 101
What is prostate cancer?
PSA testing
Digital rectal exam
Diagnosis
Gleason score
Staging
Advanced cancer
Statistics

References:

Bostwick DG, Crawford DE, Higano CS, Roach M, eds. American Cancer Society’s Complete Guide to Prostate Cancer. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society Health Promotions; 2005.

The American Cancer Society. Prostate Cancer. http://www.cancer.org. Accessed March 17, 2015.

Always consult a medical professional.

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